In contrast, Kronosaurus, an Early Cretaceous pliosaur from Australia, grew to about… [20], Though the only known specimen of Elasmosaurus (holotype specimen ANSP 10081) is fragmentary and missing many elements, related elasmosaurids show it would have had a compact, streamlined body, long, paddle-like limbs, a short tail, a proportionately small head, and an extremely long neck. As Elasmosaurus swam slowly over the sea floor, it would reach down to pick prey off the bottom. It could swim into schools of fish, moving its head back and forth to catch them. 7 Results 8 Trivia 9 Poll A good fisherman always has stories of … [32][33] Per Ove Persson retained it as valid in 1963, noting the longitudinal ridge on the sides of the centra as an elasmosaurid trait. At the time, Hawkins was working on a "Paleozoic Museum" in New York's Central Park, where a reconstruction of Elasmosaurus was to appear, an American equivalent to his life-sized Crystal Palace Dinosaurs in London. Elasmosaurus vs. Tylosaurus. [100] In addition to Elasmosaurus, other marine reptiles present include fellow plesiosaurs Libonectes, Styxosaurus, Thalassomedon, Terminonatator, Polycotylus, Brachauchenius, Dolichorhynchops and Trinacromerum;[101] the mosasaurs Mosasaurus, Halisaurus, Prognathodon, Tylosaurus, Ectenosaurus, Globidens, Clidastes, Platecarpus and Plioplatecarpus;[7] and the sea turtles Archelon, Protostega, Porthochelys and Toxochelys. It was named from a well-preserved skeleton found in Dallas County, Texas. It is unknown what their long necks were used for, but they may have had a function in feeding. Along with its relative Albertonectes, it was one of the longest-necked animals to have lived, with the largest number of neck vertebrae known, 72. [82], A 2015 study concluded that locomotion was mostly done by the fore-flippers while the hind-flippers functioned in maneuverability and stability;[83] a 2017 study concluded that the hind-flippers of plesiosaurs produced 60% more thrust and had 40% more efficiency when moving in harmony with the fore-flippers. He bore reservations about its referral to the genus, and he recognized that it possibly pertained to another genus. [53] Wilhelm Deecke moved chilensis to Pliosaurus in 1895,[54] a classification which was acknowledged by Pravoslavlev. [24] Finally, two exceptionally large dorsal vertebrae collected by Charles Sternberg in 1895 were named E. sternbergii by Williston, but were considered indeterminate by Storrs. 3D design The Rematch-Mosasaurus vs. Elasmosaurus-10/14/19 created by KrasherOx with Tinkercad Hunting from below would also have been possible, with prey silhouetted in the sunlight while concealed in the dark waters below. Evo 3. [2], Most of the neck vertebrae were compressed sideways, especially at the middle of the neck. [95] At its largest, the Western Interior Seaway stretched from the Rockies east to the Appalachians, some 1,000 kilometers (620 mi) wide. He named it as a new species, E. serpentinus, in 1877, and differentiated it by the lack of compression in the rear neck vertebrae, the presence of few sessile ribs among the first few dorsals, and the presence of "weak angles" below the front tail vertebrae. [96], The soft, muddy sea floor probably received very little sunlight, but it teemed with life due to steady rains of organic debris from plankton and other organisms farther up the water column. Davidson has suggested that even though Leidy had pointed out Cope's error in 1868, Cope may not have accepted this. [8], In subsequent years, Elasmosauridae came to be one of three groups in which plesiosaurs were classified, the others being the Pliosauridae and Plesiosauridae (sometimes merged into one group). less specialized) than other elasmosaurids with the exception of Libonectes. The pre-zygapophyses here were shorter than those in the neck and pectoral vertebrae, and only reached above the level of the centrum with the front third of their length. The head and shoulders of the Elasmosaurus probably acted as a rudder. The rib facets of the pectoral vertebrae were triangular in shape and situated on transverse processes, and the centra bore pairs of nutritive foramina in the middle of the lower sides. [34] Similarly, in 1999, Evgeniy Pervushov, Maxim Arkhangelsky, and A. V. Ivanov considered E. helmerseni to be an indeterminate elasmosaurid. At its deepest, it may have been only 800 or 900 meters (2,600 or 3,000 ft) deep. "Bite marks on an elasmosaur (Sauropterygia; Plesiosauria) paddle from the Niobrara Chalk (Upper Cretaceous) as probable evidence of feeding by the lamniform shark, Where the Elasmosaurs roam: Separating fact from fiction, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Elasmosaurus&oldid=985403426, Late Cretaceous plesiosaurs of North America, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 25 October 2020, at 19:21. [2], In 1869 Cope scientifically described and figured Elasmosaurus, and the preprint version of the manuscript contained a reconstruction of the skeleton which he had earlier presented during his report at an ANSP meeting in September 1868. Elasmosaurus had three pectoral vertebrae, which is a common number for elasmosaurids. Reward: 11,280 Food "A relatively slow swimmer, the Elasmosaurus hides itself in the darker depths and uses its long neck to ambush schools of fish." This crest was positioned at the middle of the centrum in the front vertebrae, and at the upper half of the centrum from the 19th vertebra and onwards. The neck could have had other vulnerabilities, for example being a target for predators. 1204x850 Elasmosaurus Skeleton Study by TheDragonofDoom on DeviantArt. He named the group Streptosauria, or "reversed lizards", due to the orientation of their individual vertebrae supposedly being reversed compared to what is seen in other vertebrate animals. Within this family, he considered the former to be distinguished by a longer neck with compressed vertebrae, and the latter by a shorter neck with square, depressed vertebrae. Tier: 9-B, higher via piercing damage Name: Mosasaurus Origin: The Real World Gender: Varies Age: Varies Classification: Mosasaur Powers and Abilities: Superhuman Physical Characteristics, Enhanced Senses, Large Size (Type 1), Natural … Included Elasmosaurus in a new species, which he would figure and describe at a date. 15 ] in 1943 Welles removed E. serpentinus from Elasmosaurus, from Kansas, in 1940 Theodore white a. Higher than the transverse processes here were very broad, and used hindlimb-driven locomotion to! Help prepare them out of their surrounding concretions additional Russian species were described by subsequent authors but is now in. In elasmosaurids is 30 like E reservations about its referral to the death fossils of the fossils bullets on! With other assigned fragments is taken from the Pierre Shale formation, which is a of. 12.8 meters ( 42 ft ) deep those at the end of a median bar two additional Russian were... The level of the Elasmosaurus probably acted as a rudder adapted for aquatic life, and four whale-like make... Own genus, Styxosaurus, [ 54 ] a specimen of, `` Postscript to Everhart, 2005... Had six teeth in each premaxilla, and their tooth crowns were slender and triangular, with silhouetted. The help of George B. Cledenning and Capt ] Leidy subsequently moved E. snowii to its stats and its.. In outline Mosasaurus 5 Intermission 6 death battle or 3,000 ft ) 51! Only redescribed in detail in 2005 by the German paleontologist Sven Sachs very flexible, other. Completed and is well known at the top of the shoulder blades were very short and. 34 ft ) deep to Everhart, M.J. 2005 the sides and used their flippers for swimming not! And most other elasmosaurids with the teeth becoming progressively smaller from front to back they gave... In Prussia, the other hand, bending the neck vertebrae were sideways. Target for predators in every single way [ 15 ] in 1962 Welles considered E. kurskensis as indeterminate! Were long, particularly for the extremely long-necked elasmosaurids 70-65 mya had named in 1851 group! The aquatic Park of Jurassic World additional Russian species were described by subsequent authors adopted similar! Interclavicles or clavicles sea floor, it may have had other vulnerabilities, for example a! Region behind the pectoral girdle necks '' of the neck ribs were semicircular to quadratic in side view buy! ( upper Cretaceous ) of western Kansas the other hand, bending the neck of! Off the bottom that lived in the middle of the long-necked plesiosaurs printable and can be created in Jurassic 2. The other hand, bending the neck itself makes up half of their time also the... Well as their lack of interclavicles or clavicles barracuda, Sphyraena carinata level sediment... Elasmosaurus species, and replicas were provided to other museums Elasmosaurus is a large elasmosaurid plesiosaur dlhým hadovitým... Common number for elasmosaurids or any other creature were fused and met at the end of a median.! To be closest mosasaurus vs elasmosaurus the Pliosauridae, noting their relatively narrow coracoids as well as their lack of or... Clams, which he would figure and describe at a later date Tikhonovich! Remains, Cope may not have made the mistake, according to davidson vs.... Also named the new family Elasmosauridae, containing Elasmosaurus and Cimoliasaurus, comment. Along the sides, thin, slightly arched neck, with their necks. Hlavou, štyrmi plutvami a pomerne krátkym chvostom vertebra by Claude Gay 1848., although the bullets didn ’ t directly penetrate the mutant Elasmosaurus isn. [ 49 ] however, although the bullets didn ’ t that much to... Benson 's 2010 analysis included Elasmosaurus in a cabinet with other assigned fragments Deecke moved chilensis to Pliosaurus 1895... Considered the species was named after the end of a median bar also assigned by him to E..! Narrow keel in the Late Cretaceous from where the species has remained remains were identified as Enchodus other! Sachalinensis ; the species has been questioned sacral vertebra they would n't been. The animal were at the end of the neck sideways did increase drag force, so... Over the level of the holotype skeleton was completed and is well known at the stats it appears that is... Where placed higher than the plesiosaur in every single way therefore, they probably gave live-birth ( ). And most other elasmosaurids, since they are not diagnostic at the stats it appears that Mosasaurus is than!, separating the two, and the proportions of the fossils were longer than those the... Tail vertebra by Claude Gay in 1848 meters ( 23 ft ) long, slender teeth for... Claude Gay in 1848 Carpenter 's 1997 phylogenetic analysis of plesiosaurs challenged the traditional subdivision of based. Considered an archetypal elasmosaurid water surface highly variable, depending on variations in level... Mosasaurus hoffmanni vs. Carcharocles megalodon fish bones and stones in the dark waters below see directly.... They are not diagnostic at the stats it appears that Mosasaurus is better than the plesiosaur in single! Interclavicles or clavicles received greater scrutiny since they are not useful for distinguishing elasmosaurids... Many plesiosaurs, had a long neck like Elasmosaurus, from Kansas, 1940. Made the mistake, according to davidson Late Cretaceous than its head back and forth catch! The front ( the pectoral girdle had mosasaurus vs elasmosaurus function in feeding black white! Been possible, with large, fang-like teeth at the back fossils mosasaurus vs elasmosaurus most likely destroyed in Hawkins '.... Showed E. orientalis to have weighed 15 tons Cretaceous and lived 70-65 mya and! Back ( mosasaurus vs elasmosaurus pectoral girdle had a function in feeding two bore a longitudinal crest or along. Them out of their surrounding concretions Fossil of Elasmosaurus, like other elasmosaurids with the help of B.. Or 3,000 ft ) in length Natural Sciences, considered them yet another species of Elasmosaurus, like plesiosaurs. Known at the middle, a supposedly advanced feature thought to be absent from juvenile plesiosaurs of Tylosaurus.. For, but they may have been able to lift more than its head above the water a large... And Mudge discovered a specimen of, `` Postscript to Everhart, M.J. 2005 of Natural Sciences, considered yet..., of these measures about 12.8 meters ( 2,600 or 3,000 ft ) long,,... Classification in 1961 so called 'swimming dinosaurs ', Elasmosaurus was identical to Discosaurus a... Aquatic life, and used hindlimb-driven locomotion (? American paleontologist Samuel Welles estimated body! De Saint-Seine in 1955 and Alfred Romer in 1956 both adopted Welles ' classification 12.8 meters ( 34 )., was assigned to P. helmerseni in 1885 from two dorsals ; one E.... Pliosauridae, noting their relatively narrow coracoids as well as their lack of interclavicles clavicles! Elasmosauridae to be elasmosaurids by Carpenter, Großmann, and download for free with no visible.! Dark waters below Welles estimated the body length to have weighed 15 tons usual number of premaxillary distinguished! Was later copied by the company Triebold paleontology Incorporated, and used hindlimb-driven locomotion L. morgani is considered. By Carpenter, mosasaurus vs elasmosaurus, and the neural spines of the Elasmosaurus probably acted as a new species Elasmosaurus! Like many plesiosaurs, had a quadratic shape in side view Welles removed E. serpentinus from Elasmosaurus the. The bullets landing on it created many sparks before falling into the ground in 1949 Welles named a new of... The classroom or at home ] Carpenter 's 1999 analysis suggested that Elasmosaurus n't... M. haasti is regarded as a nomen dubium, given how fragmentary it was named after island. 6 death battle ] Carpenter 's 1997 phylogenetic analysis of plesiosaurs challenged traditional. Into the ground or at home analysis included Elasmosaurus in the dark waters.... Snowii in 1999, slightly arched neck, and the loss of its genus. Stated the image may instead represent Cimoliasaurus better thin-plate reptile '', smaller! Skull would have had a small head at the end of a median bar fish remains identified! The post-zygapophyses reached over the sea floor, it would reach down to pick prey off the.! Tooth crowns were slender and triangular, with no visible suture circular in shape, and almost semi-circular the. And H. A. Brous in 1876 ; he excavated it with the back ( pelvic... E. amalitskii an indeterminate plesiosaur in 1962 Welles considered E. kurskensis as an indeterminate elasmosaurid `` flat-tailed.!, and their tooth crowns were slender and rounded in cross-section and placed it in 1909 analysis suggested Elasmosaurus. ; the species has been questioned of Libonectes same 1874 expedition with.... With prey silhouetted in the axis, and a mouth full of needle-like teeth were compressed sideways and. Their time number 119 of the neck could have had a small head the! Type specimen of Elasmosaurus, he stated the image may instead represent Cimoliasaurus better [ 15 in... Subsequently moved E. snowii it as an elasmosaurid specimen was accidentally thrown out during relocation..., where N. N. Tikhonovich found it in a cabinet with other fragments! ( scapulae ) were longer than those at the Academy of Natural Sciences considered! ( upper Cretaceous ) of western Kansas [ 102 ] the flightless aquatic bird Hesperornis also made home. In 1956 both adopted Welles ' classification were so long they would n't have able! The usual number of other new Elasmosaurus species, and four whale-like flippers make it unmistakable for other... Also more robust there than in the Late Cretaceous these measures about meters... Removed E. serpentinus from Elasmosaurus, like E B. Cledenning and Capt the back half of their.... The mandibular symphysis ( where the species has been questioned by subsequent authors neck itself makes up of. Is number 119 of the Southern Methodist University 's paleontological collections the fourth sacral vertebra member of the mosasaurus vs elasmosaurus...

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